Army is an integral part of each state because this structure defends state borders from outer invasion. This term has Latin origin (armare – to arm) and now describes fighting force which is able to fight on land, on water and in air. The first organized army was established in the Ancient India and there was mostly defending not invading force. The Ancient China had also powerful army and also the most impressive defensive fortification – The Great Wall. One of the most famous armies in history belonged to Sparta and this force was characterized by high level courage. The army of Roman Empire can be considered as the prototype of modern defending and invasion forces – it was divided into certain amount of legions which controlled each province. There were generals and Supreme Commander, roles and functions were also strictly shared. Now army performs mostly defensive role and mechanism of political manipulation because countries which hadn’t strong fighting force couldn’t dictate their own conditions. Such tendency appeared during the Cold War between the USA and the Soviet Union and now continues between Russia and NATO (North-Atlantic Treaty Organization).
There are countries were army and politics are strictly connected because the military regime controls the state and general is the president. Such situation was observed often in Nigeria, now in Egypt. This tendency is typical for non-developed countries. It’s also means for building career because army jobs are prestigious in most countries and give great opportunities. This structure is also one of the most important spheres of spending budget money in developed countries (especially in the USA and in Russia), because new inventions in military sphere are important and the best scientists are involved in this arms race.
Army of each country has definite structure and it is divided into corps, divisions, brigades and battalions. Each subdivision has commander. The fighting force can be of different amount. The most numerous army in the world is Chinese army (2,3 million soldiers and officers). The second place in this ranking is occupied by the Russian fighting force (about 1,5 soldiers and officers). The USA army is the third one with the amount of 1,4 million soldiers and officers. India occupies the 4 position, Northern and Southern Korea – 5 and 6 positions consequently.