Family planning in Nigeria: methods and problems

Family planning in Nigeria: methods and problems

Family planning is of the main tasks of a couple. It is absolutely true that the importance of family planning can't be diminished. So, here you will find the best methods of family planning in Nigeria.

Family planning in Nigeria: methods and problems

What is family planning?

Family planning - is a complex of measures aimed at reducing morbidity and protecting health of women and children, its one more purpose is to help the couple in solving the following problems:

1) to avoid unwanted pregnancies;

2) to regulate the intervals between pregnancies;

3) to have the desired number of children;

4) to promote safe pregnancy and birth of a healthy baby;

These family planning problems are solved in the following ways:

Family planning methods and problems

1) selection of suitable contraceptives;

2) infertility treatment;

3) treatment of inability to bear a child.

Age and importance of family planning

In the process of family planning, age of a woman for child birth is a great importance. Women who give birth to children before being in their 20ies have the risk for complications during pregnancy, childbirth and after childbirth. For women after 35 years, the risk of having a child with genetic abnormalities (e.g. Down syndrome) is much common.

Family planning problems

Family planning plays an important role in reducing maternal mortality, one of its reasons is illegal induced abortion. Termination of pregnancy through induced abortion often causes irreparable harm to the reproductive health of women. Studies have shown that if a 16 year old woman’s first pregnancy ended in abortion, then later she will come across high percentage of failed second pregnancies (spontaneous abortions, premature labor.)

Children's health and child mortality are also closely linked to mother's age and intervals between births. The mortality rate among children born at intervals of less than one year, is twice higher than among children born at intervals of 2 years or more.

Family planning methods and types

Family planning in Nigeria: methods

Contraception is a method of preventing pregnancy for women of reproductive age. Currently there are the following methods of contraception:

- Traditional (barrier, chemical, biological, interrupted intercourse);

- Modern (hormonal contraception, intrauterine contraception);

- Irreversible contraception - surgical sterilization (tubal ligation).

How to choose the best among types of family planning?

The choice of a contraceptive method is a complex task. When choosing a method of contraception you should take into account woman's age, peculiarities of sexual life, presence of gynecological and somatic diseases. Selection of a contraceptive method should be done by a doctor. If the pregnancy still has occurred, and it is undesirable, it is followed by an interruption in an operational way, i.e. abortion. Abortion conducted in hospital leads to much less complications compared to clandestine abortion.

For a correct choice of contraceptive methods, you need individual consultation with a specialist. Independent selection of contraceptives often leads to their low efficiency.

TOP family planning methods

Family planning methods

Natural family planning

Such a method involves dependence on your calendar of fertility and infertility days. You just follow your menstruation and ovulation days for choosing safe days for intercourse.

Injectional contraceptives

Family planning

Mechanism of action: inhibit ovulation, thicken cervical mucus, decrease sperm movement, change endometrium by complicating implantation.

Applied by: women of any reproductive age, regardless of the number of pregnancies, by smokers regardless of the amount of smoked cigarettes per day, breastfeeding mothers after 6 weeks from childbirth, women with moderate and severe menstrual pain, women for which doctors do not recommend estrogenic methods.

Pros: High efficiency (0,3-1,0 pregnancy per 100 women), a method of medium term (2-3 months), injections can be carried out by trained non-medical personnel.

Cons: Can cause changes in the character of menstrual bleeding, you can not immediately interrupt the contraceptive effect. In case you need to restore the ability to conceive after the contraceptive Depo - provera 150 must pass until a year and a half after the last injection.

READ ALSO: Law seeking to stop poor men from marrying many wives is necessary to guide Muslims - Emir

Implantable contraceptives

Family planning Nigeria

The duration of action is about 5 years. The implant doesn't contain estrogen, it is a reversible method of contraception for a long period of exposure that is not associated directly with sexual intercourse. The disadvantages of this method of contraception may be classified as: menstrual irregularities, weight gain, complexity of installation and removal of the implant.

Combined oral-hormonal contraceptives

This method works by inhibiting ovulation and causing changes in cervical mucus. Oral contraceptives protect against acute inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs, prevent the development of ovarian tumors.

Disadvantages: the tablets should be taken daily, they can cause nausea and vomiting, headaches, depression, decreased libido. There is a risk of development of gall bladder, a small increase of blood clots.

Intrauterine contraception (spiral)

The contraceptive properties of all intrauterine devices - action in the uterus. IUC do not affect ovulation, do not have abortive consequences. Currently, it is believed that the main mechanism of action is the development of intrauterine bacterial environment with spermicidal properties.

The method used by women of any reproductive age regardless of the number of pregnancies, this type of family planning methods is suitable for those, who want an effective long-term contraception and are not at risk of contracting reproductive tract infections and sexually transmitted diseases.

Family

They provide immediate and long-term effect not associated with sexual intercourse. You do not need to visit a doctor after installation, except in case occurring of some problems. Intrauterine spirals do not affect breast-feeding. Fertility returns immediately after removal. However, the spiral does not prevent all ectopic pregnancies, menstrual bleeding and pains may increase, in the first few months may increase the risk of inflammatory diseases of the pelvis with subsequent infertility. A woman can't stop using these spirals without doctor’s help.

Creams, gels, pastes, vaginal tablets

These are contraceptives of local action, which are placed to vagina with a plastic cap. The mechanism of their action is based on the fact that they kill spermatozoa. They should be applied directly before the intercourse, their effect lasts not more than an hour. Using them you have very large (about 20%) risk of pregnancy.

Latex rubbers

It is a thin cover of latex rubber that is worn on the penis before intercourse. The circle of latex is placed at the penis and is unrolled along its length, leaving about 1.5 cm of empty space at the end for flowing of sperm. While removing it from vagina you need to hold it with your hand. It is not only a means of protection from unwanted pregnancy, but also a reliable way to prevent AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. However, the use of such device can affect the severity of sensations during intercourse. The risk of pregnancy in case of careless retrieval of a rubber is 12%.

Voluntary sterilization

Both men and women can be sterilized. This is the preferred method for couples who want to protect themselves from pregnancy. The risk of pregnancy is minimal. There are no guarantees of fertility restoration in case of the desire to have a baby.

Interrupted coitus

The traditional method consists in the fact that the man removes his penis from the vagina before ejaculation, which is produced outside of vagina and other outer female genitals. The disadvantages include low level of reliability.

Family planning types

Rhythmic calendar method

It is based on periodic abstinence from sexual activity during ovulation. The method can be used only for women with regular cycles. Before using this method the woman should maintain a menstrual calendar for at least 8 months. The total number of days when you can be sexually active is restricted. The risk of pregnancy during the first year of use is 20%.

READ ALSO: Contraceptive Convenience: Where would we be without ATMs, GSMs and Sayana Press in Nigeria?

Now you know all the natural family planning methods. It is up to you which one should be chosen in order to make your prospects for the future really bright and colourful.

Source: Naij.com

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